Peter The Great Reforms Essay Scholarships

  • army of 210,000 men formed by conscripted peasants and European and Russian officers
  • 80 % of state revenues devoted to military expenditures
  • The Great Northern War against Sweden (1701-1722): key victory was Peter's defeat of Sweden in 1708 at the battle of Poltava.
    Peace of Nystadt in 1722 confirmed Peter's acquisition of territory from Sweden [The accumulation of power via additional territory, population, resources]

Yearly Number of Draftees in the Army and Navy

  • Year

    Number

    Year

    Number

    Year

    Number

    1701

    33,234

    1713-1714

    16,342

    1724

    20,550

    1705

    44,539

    1714

    500

    1726

    22,795

    1706

    19,579

    1715

    10,895

    1727

    17,795

    1707

    12,450

    1717

    2,500

    1729

    15,662

    1708

    11,289

    1718

    15,389

    1730

    16,000

    1709

    15,072

    1719

    14,112

    1732

    18,654

    1710

    17,127

    1720

    4,000

    1733

    50,569

    1712

    51,912

    1721

    19,755

    1734

    35,100

    1713

    20,416

    1722

    25,483

    1735

    45,167

  • Colleges (1711) and Provinces (1719) introduced to enhance administrative control; mapping of all Russia and its resources to facilitate control and extraction
  • Holy Synod (1721) made church into a virtual department of the state, headed by a lay Procurator appointed by Peter
  • Peter made service to the state an obligation for receiving and retaining nobility or elevated rank and status for non-nobles in the state administration.
  • The social group most affected were large landowners
  • This was codifies in the Table of Ranks introduced in 1722 (See Lim for the section specifically addressed to the nobility)

Three hierarchies of rank and privilege, with 14 levels, 1 being the summit, and promotions based on merit

Army & NavyCivil ServiceCourt
   
   

Service to the state affirmed a noble's legal status and privileges; refusal put the legal status to risk.

Non-nobles encouraged to enter the civil service at the bottom ranks and move upward; the rise to the 8th rank confered personal nobility to individual (not hereditary)

 

Question:Analyze the major ways through which Tsar Peter the Great sought to reform his society and its institutions in order to strengthen Russia and its position in Europe. Thesis: Czar Peter the Great of Russia tried to modernize Russia by making it more European.Peter the Great reformed Russia by advancing the Russian army, organizing social structure, controlling religion ,and making his court a more European style court. I. Military. Peter wanted a seaport to the Atlantic that was free of ice. A. After the nobles revolted Peter made an army that served the king, himself , and not itself. 1. Because the army only responded to him it was harder for nobles to rebel against him. 2. In 10 years Peter drafted over 130,000 soldiers. 3. At the end of his reign Peter had an unprecedented 300,000 soldiers in his standing army 4. Based the officer ranking off France’s army. B. Hired military engineers from around Europe to develop better weapons and ships for the Russian armed forces. 1. The Russian army won many wars.Especially against Sweden and the Turks. Although he won many battles against the Turks he never conquered Constantinople. a. Peter finally got the warm seaport that he dreamed Russia would get. C. Between 1620s to 1740s Russian land increases by 3.8 million square miles. I. Peter wanted to be an absolute ruler like Louis the XIV but because of the strong presence of the boyars this objective was nearly impossible. A. Peter creates the Table of Ranks to give prestige to people who serve him best. 1.Like Louis in that nobles thought they were furthering their power but really they were serving the purposes of the king. B. The Table of Ranks satisfied most people 1.Unified Russia. III. Organize court.Peter emulated the Europeans in yet another way with the structure and appearance of his court. A. Peter shaved the facial hair off boyars. 1.angered nobles because beards were fashionable in Russia. B. Made nobles build fancy houses like western Europe. 1.Made Russia look more proper and rich C.Made nobles wear European style clothing. D.Modeled St.Petersburg off Versaille,France. E.Sent boyars children to study in Europe 1.Boyars children favored Peter and Russian monarchial actions because both were based off a European style of government. IV.Brought Church under his authority.Peter wanted to control the ideology and philosophy of Russia so he sought to control the Russian Orthodox Church.

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